RNA is short lived in the presence of RNAses and this makes RNA present in the blood a good temporal measure of what is occurring in the body at the time of extraction. Therefore, DNA-seq and RNA-seq from cell-free nucleic acids could prove to be a relatively noninvasive measure of cardiovascular health. Recent advances have led to more precise control of picoliter scale volumes and chemical reactions.

The next milestone may be to sequence unamplified, unmodified native nucleic acids. There are single-molecule technologies, such as the Pacific Bioscience RS, but they do require adaptor ligation to modify the sample before sequencing can take place. The concept is to electrophorese molecules through a pore of a membrane and then measure the electric current through the pore as molecules pass through 93 Figure 5. By characterizing the current of a pore over time, nanopore technology may be able to determine exactly what has traversed the pore and in which order.

These companies hope to develop products that can determine the entire genome, sense and antisense, from small amounts of unmodified input in a short amount of time. Figure 5. Nanopore technology. Third-generation sequencing is expected to measure the change in ion flow current within a membrane as small molecules are passed through a small pore inside the membrane. Different current profiles will, therefore, indicate which nucleotide passed through and in which order.

Advances in HTS technologies are enabling a more accurate and comprehensive representation of cardiac development and disease processes. Although more researchers are using HTS to study cardiovascular medicine, the full potential of current HTS sequencing platforms in cardiovascular medicine has yet to be realized. HTS will be essential in identifying biomarkers of disease, staging disease progression, and linking genotypic to phenotypic outcomes.

Given the rapid pace of development in sequencing technology during the past decade, future sequencing technologies promise to further help us understand the roles that the genome, transcriptome, and proteome play in the cell by identifying cellular mechanisms. This may also lead to deeper and more comprehensive insights into disease mechanisms at a subcellular level, possibly connecting causation effects to gene expression levels. Because different platforms improve depth by increasing in read length and decreasing in sequencing time , and decrease in cost, improvements in HTS applications will provide a more complete molecular picture into the functionality of biological processes.

Ultimately, improved understanding of these biological processes may lead to dramatically safer and more effective therapies for cardiovascular diseases. ARVD arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Emerging Science Reviews are published on an occasional basis to highlight areas of research that are very recent and at the cutting edge of cardiovascular biology. The goal of these articles is to bring attention to promising new topics that are not yet well developed. In April , the average time from submission to first decision for all original research papers submitted to Circulation Research was Home Circulation Research Vol.

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Function of lncRNAs and approaches to lncRNA-protein interactions

Jump to. Churko , Gary L. Mantalas , Michael P. Snyder , and Joseph C. Jared M. Churko Jared M. Gary L. Mantalas Gary L. Michael P. Snyder Michael P.

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Joseph C. Wu Joseph C. Abstract High throughput sequencing technologies have become essential in studies on genomics, epigenomics, and transcriptomics. Download figure Download PowerPoint.

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Considerations when investigating lncRNA function in vivo | eLife Lens

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